Starting a vineyard can be expensive, but if you have just a little patience, you can do it for almost nothing. This can be done through the process of hardwood propagation.
Before you begin, you will need at least one grape vine from which to take your cuttings. At a nursery this will probably range from five to ten dollars, or if you have a friend with grapes it will not cost you a dime. To ensure the health of the vines, wait until February are early March to take the cuttings. This will ensure that most of the harsh winter has passed and will contribute less stress to the vines. You will be looking for vines about the size of a pencil. Once you have located the vines you want to prune, you will cut off four to five nodes, or segments, of the vine. It is beneficial to cut the side towards the roots at an angle to ensure more surface area for water to be absorbed, as they will not initially have roots to do this for them. Also, be sure to remember which side is up and down on the vine when you plant.
So, now you have your cuttings, the next step of the process is to put the bases of them in water as you would a cut flower while you are getting your potting soil ready. After the pots have been filled with soil, it is time to place the finishing touches on the cuttings. Take a knife and lightly scratch up the bark at the bottom of the vines to promote root growth. Lastly, place either honey or rooting hormone onto the scratched section of the cuttings. This final step is optional, but will lead to a higher success rate.
After all these steps are completed, go ahead and place your cuttings in the potting soil a few inches deep. As long as you keep the soil moist, the cuttings should begin to sprout leaves in a month or two. Patience is key here, as it will look like nothing is happening and you will think your cuttings are dead until the spring to life almost instantly. You will want to wait a year to plant them in the ground as you allow the roots to develop.
That is all there is to it. Just a few minutes of easy labor can save endless sums of money at nurseries. I hope that you found this useful and have many grapes to show for it.
P.S. If you believe that a video would be more informative than writing, I made this one.
P.P.S. This process will not work for muscadines, they perform better with green propagation.